An internet protocol is a set of rules that define how your computer interacts with another computer to retrieve or send the information needed.
The web is usually where we use the HTTP protocol to access the web. You can see this at the beginning of the URL.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) generally works through centralised networks.
Information is stored and retrieved from central nodes.
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is used for secured traffic over the web. It is becoming a more commonly used protocol, especially for websites payments are made or personal information is sent over the web.
Hyper, Dat (p2p)
Other protocols such as Hyper and Dat, facilitate a distributed web, in which information can be stored and retrieved from individual users.
Gopher, Gemini (small)
Gopher is a protocol that was developed around the same time as HTML and allows for a more menu-based hierarchical information resource.
Gemini is a new protocol designed to expand slightly on Gopher. The result is mostly text-based pages with styling controlled more by the browser software.
Finger, Telnet (other)
Other protocols facilitate different kinds of browsing. E.g. Finger, which was created as a way to pull up simple information about an internet user, and that people are now using as a form of slow blogging.
SSH is a cryptographic protocol to operate network services securely over an unsecured network.